Tissue hypoxia inhibits prostaglandin and nitric oxide production and prevents ductus arteriosus reopening.Kajino H. Chen YQ. Chemtob S. Waleh N. Koch CJ. Clyman RI.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative & Comparative Physiology. 279(1):R278-86, 2000 Jul.
Regulation of ductus arteriosus (DA) tension depends on a balance between oxygen-induced constriction and PG and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxation. After birth, increasing Pa(O(2)) produces DA constriction. However, as the full-term ductus constricts, it develops severe tissue hypoxia in its inner vessel wall (oxygen concentration <0.2%). We used isolated rings of fetal lamb DA to determine why the constricted ductus does not relax and reopen as it becomes hypoxic. We used a modification of the 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF5) technique (Clyman RI, Chan CY, Mauray F, Chen YQ, Cox W, Seidner SR, Lord EM, Weiss H, Wale N, Evan SM, and Koch CJ. Pediatr Res 45: 19-29, 1999) to determine mean tissue oxygen concentration. A decrease in the ductus' mean tissue oxygen concentration from 1.4 to 0.1% lowers the isometric tone of the ductus by 15 +/- 10% of its maximal active tension (the maximal tension that can be produced by the ductus). Although decreases in oxygen concentration diminish ductus tension, most of the vasoconstrictor tone in the ductus is independent of ambient oxygen concentration. This oxygen-independent tone is equivalent to 64 +/- 10% of the maximal active tension. At mean tissue oxygen concentrations >0.2%, endogenous PGs and NO inhibit more than 40% of the active tension developed by the ductus. However, when tissue oxygen concentrations drop below 0.2%, the constitutive relaxation of the ductus by endogenous PGs and NO is lost. In the absence of PG and NO production, tension increases to a level normally observed only after treatment of the ductus with indomethacin and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (inhibitors of PG and NO production). Therefore, under conditions of severe hypoxia (tissue oxygen concentration <0.2% oxygen), the loss of PG- and NO-mediated relaxation more than compensates for the loss of oxygen-induced tension. We hypothesize that this increased ductus tone enables the vessel to remain closed as it undergoes tissue remodeling.